The (very) basic science of a modern solar panel:
When most substances are hit by sunlight they heat up. This is due to the photon energy of the sunlight causing electrons to jiggle back and forth, creating heat. But when substances such as silicon are hit by sunlight, the photon energy causes the electrons to actually jump from one place to another.
Solar cells, the building blocks of a solar panel, harness this movement of electrons as direct current (DC) electricity. An inverter then converts the direct current to alternating current (AC), which is then delivered to your wall socket and/or the electrical power grid giving you solar energy.
The most amazing thing about solar power is perhaps its simplicity. With no moving parts, solar installations, require little to no maintenance. They simply sit quietly on your roof, ground mount, or shade structure, and produce power day after day, year after year. You just can’t find another energy source as simple, clean, quiet, and reliable as solar.